Pre-historic Boholanos had already a system of writing, but most of the materials used were perishable like leaves and bamboo barks. They had a language similar to that of the other Visayas islands. Bohol’s people are said to be descendants of the last group of inhabitants of the country called “pintados”, meaning the tattooed ones.1 Before the Spaniards came in 1521, It is believed that Boholanos had already a culture of their own, as evidenced by artifacts dug in several areas in Bohol. Excavations in ancient burial grounds on the mainland have unearthed Tang Dynasty porcelain, Sung and Ming vases and other artifacts of considerable age, attesting to Bohol’s early contact with travelers/traders from China and other Southeast Asian civilizations. Cotton and rice constitutes the basis of the interior’s agricultural economy. Local cotton, which was made into a “Lumpot”, was most desired by the Chinese as a material for winter clothing since this has the same quality as wool. Cotton was critical to the economy in central Visayas for several hundred years prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, as it formed the basis for lucrative trade item to be bartered for Chinese porcelains (Echevarria, 1974). During the Spanish regime, two significant revolts occurred in Bohol. One was the Tamblot Uprising in 1621 led by a native priest of Babaylan. The other was the Dagohoy Rebellion, considered as the longest uprising recorded in the annals of Philippine history, led by Fransisco Dagohoy from 1744 lasting until the year 1829. Bohol was the site of a blood compact, considered in the Philippines as its first international treaty of friendship with a foreign country, between a local chieftain and the Spanish Conquistador, Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi in 1565. It was during this regime that several big stone churches were built which still stand today, attesting to Bohol’s colonization and Christianization. In 1879, Bohol was composed only of 34 municipalities having a population of 253,103. The Americans, led by Major Henry Hale of the 44th Infantry Battalion, arrived in Tagbilaran on March 17, 1990. The Japanese also occupied Bohol several years later during World War II. The American liberation forces arrived in Bohol on April 11, 1945.
The major dialer spoken in the province is Boholano, which is closely related to the Cebuano dialect. Of the total household population, 97% spoke Boholano at the earliest childhood (1995 census). The majority of Boholanos can speak and write the English language as well as the national language, Filipino.
Bohol’s climate is generally fair, with rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year. The coastal area of the province is warm in contrast with its interior which is colder especially during the night. Mean annual temperature is recorded at 27o C. Cyclones seldom cross Bohol. Earthquakes rarely occur in the province, with the last earthquake recorded on October 15, 2013, at magnitude 7.2 of the Richter Scale.